Expert Systems with Applications, 35 (3), 2008 – interesting articles

[Deutscher Titel: Expert Systems with Applications, 35 (3), 2008 – interessante Artikel (Text übersetzen: Deutsch)]

Expert Systems with Applications
Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 563-1504 (October 2008)

The exploration factors of affecting knowledge sharing – The case of Taiwan’s high-tech industry 661-676
Wen-Bao Lin

  • Abstract: In the past, the studies on knowledge sharing tended to be focused on the organization and few paid attention to the departments inside the organization. In this study, valid samples were collected from Taiwan’s 92 IC related firms in the high-tech industry through the Hierarchical Random Sampling method for empirical analysis. The non-linear fuzzy neural network is used due to its capacity in accepting errors and low limitation. This method enables researchers to accurately assess the relations between variables. The result of this study indicated that the degree of formalization and complexity of the organizational structure is negatively and significantly correlated with knowledge sharing. Similarly, motivation through material reward correlates positively and significantly with knowledge sharing with stronger intensity than that between motivation through non-material reward and knowledge sharing. The degree of integration between organizations correlates positively and significantly with knowledge sharing.
  • Keywords: Organizational structure characteristics; Motivation method; Relational involvement; Knowledge sharing
  • Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2007.07.038

Choosing knowledge management strategies by using a combined ANP and DEMATEL approach 828-835
Wei-Wen Wu

  • Abstract: Numerous companies are expecting their knowledge management (KM) to be performed effectively in order to leverage and transform the knowledge into competitive advantages. However, here raises a critical issue of how companies can better evaluate and select a favorable KM strategy prior to a successful KM implementation. The KM strategy selection is a kind of multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem, which requires considering a large number of complex factors as multiple evaluation criteria. A robust MCDM method should consider the interactions among criteria. The analytic network process (ANP) is a relatively new MCDM method which can deal with all kinds of interactions systematically. Moreover, the Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) not only can convert the relations between cause and effect of criteria into a visual structural model, but also can be used as a way to handle the inner dependences within a set of criteria. Hence, this paper proposes an effective solution based on a combined ANP and DEMATEL approach to help companies that need to evaluate and select KM strategies. Additionally, an empirical study is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed method.
  • Keywords: Knowledge management strategy; Mu1tiple criteria decision-making (MCDM); Analytic network process (ANP); Decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL)
  • Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2007.07.025

A knowledge-based architecture for implementing collaborative problem-solving methods in military e-training 976-990
Shu-Hsien Liao, Yen-Ping Ho

  • Abstract: E-learning systems provide a variety of instructional aids and communication methods, and offer learners great flexibility as to the time and place of instruction. Given these advantages, it is not surprising that business and educational institutions are making substantial investments in e-learning systems. In military, the military scenario is a tool or environment that supports the classroom training in collaborative decision-making and problem solving. It offers a method to train officers by simulating battlefield situations to analyze situations, generate plans, make decision, and acquire knowledge and experience from the scenario training procedure. This article is an example on implementing a military e-training system on military training institute in the Taiwanese Military. For this, this paper proposes a knowledge-based system architecture that incorporates the functions of military training materials, scenario case base, database, and geographical information systems (GIS) in terms of integrating web-based and collaborative problem solving methods in military collaborative scenario training. A scenario case is presented as an example of system implementation and some issue discussion are also described.
  • Keywords: Collaborative problem solving; Knowledge-based system architecture; Geographical information systems; Military scenario training; E-training
  • Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2007.08.020

A frame knowledge system for managing financial decision knowledge 1068-1079
Weissor Shiue, Sheng-Tun Li, Kuan-Ju Chen

  • Abstract: Managing decision knowledge or expertise from domain experts is one of the most exciting challenges in today’s knowledge management field. The nature of decision knowledge in determining a firm’s financial health is context-dependent, intangible, and tacit in nature. Knowledge-based systems (KBS) have been recognized as a successful paradigm for managing financial decision knowledge attributed to possessing capabilities of reasoning and enhancing the consistency of decision-making. However, most present KBS adopt rules as the knowledge representation scheme, which cannot express the expert’s knowledge construct systematically when dealing with more numerous and disordered knowledge connotations. In addition, the standalone nature of the systems hinders them from deploying onto heterogeneous platforms and cannot accommodate to the emerging Web-enabled environment. To reduce these flaws, this study proposes a frame knowledge system in which the structural and procedural decision knowledge is encapsulated so that unnecessary interference can be avoided. A protocol analysis, before encapsulation, is conducted to elicit the tacit and unstructured knowledge from a senior CPA we cooperated with. The deployment and Web enabling issue is tackled by using Jess and Java interoperable computing. With these combined, it is possible to prompt the understandability, accessibility, and reusability of KBS. The effectiveness of the proposed system is validated in supporting the expert’s decision-making by conducting an empirical experimentation on 537 companies listed in the Taiwan Stock Exchange Corporation.
  • Keywords: Knowledge-based system; Frame knowledge representation; Knowledge acquisition; Jess; Financial decision management
  • Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2007.08.035

An experimental investigation of the impact of domain complexity on knowledge acquisition (KA) methods 1084-1094
C.W. Holsapple, Victor Raj, William P. Wagner

  • Abstract: This paper experimentally examines the effects of domain complexity on the quality of knowledge acquired and the efficiency with which knowledge acquisition (KA) is accomplished. The experiment is performed using two of the most prominent KA methods: unstructured interviews and protocol analysis. One contribution of the research is that it employs an experimental strategy that pays particular attention to addressing problematic issues of measurement and control. The experimental results indicate that domain complexity strongly influences the quality of knowledge acquired when protocol analysis is used for KA. While finding the other hypotheses to be inconclusive, some interesting trends were also identified regarding the quality and efficiency of knowledge acquisition methods.
  • Keywords: Dependency diagram; Domain complexity; Elicitation transcript; Interview; Knowledge acquisition; Protocol analysis
  • Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2007.08.004

Knowledge sharing practices as a facilitating factor for improving organizational performance through human capital: A preliminary test 1316-1326
I-Chieh Hsu

  • Abstract: Organizational knowledge sharing, argued to be able to improve organizational performance and achieve competitive advantage, is often not induced successfully. How organizations should encourage and facilitate knowledge sharing to improve organizational performance is still an important research question. This study proposes and examines a model of organizational knowledge sharing that improves organizational performance. Organizational knowledge sharing practices are argued to be able to encourage and facilitate knowledge sharing, and are hypothesized to have a positive relationship with organizational human capital (employee competencies), which is hypothesized to have a positive relationship with organizational performance. Two organizational antecedents (innovation strategy and top management knowledge values) are hypothesized to lead to the implementation of organizational knowledge sharing practices. The hypotheses were examined with data collected from 256 companies in Taiwan. All the hypotheses are supported. This study has both theoretical and practical implications.
  • Keywords: Knowledge sharing; Performance; Human capital; Innovation strategy; Top management knowledge values
  • Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2007.08.012

Knowledge-based approach to improving micromarketing decisions in a data-challenged environment 1379-1385
John C. Yi

  • Abstract: With the growing popularity of micromarketing strategies, more companies are tailoring their marketing efforts to meet individual consumer need based on analysis of consumer-level data. However, there are two major obstacles in the way to effective micromarketing strategies: (1) data limitation at the consumer-level making it difficult to construct robust and accurate promotional response function and (2) misplaced usage of a resource allocation approach effective in a data-rich environment to data-challenged environment. These obstacles lead to suboptimal marketing resource allocation decisions.
    This paper presents a knowledge-based approach specifically designed for effectively allocating marketing resources in the micromarketing environment. A team of domain experts provide knowledge in refining and imputing data to overcome data limitation issues, as well as identifying consumer-level constraints to strengthen the integer programming model’s performance.
    Results indicate that this approach is transparent to all levels of management, adaptable to changes in environment, and easy to implement. In addition, there is tremendous potential for improving not only profitability but also growing the company’s intellectual capital. When this approach is applied to a random sales territory, it outperforms the traditional method by more than 19% in profit.
  • Keywords: Micromarketing; Data limitation; Knowledge-based approach; Sales resource allocation; Promotional response function
  • Link: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2007.08.032

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