Expert Systems with Applications, 35 (1-2), 2008 – interesting articles

[Deutscher Titel: Expert Systems with Applications, 35 (1-2), 2008 – interessante Artikel (Text übersetzen: Deutsch)]

Expert Systems with Applications
Volume 35, Issues 1-2, Pages 1-562 (July-August 2008)

On knowledge modelling of the Visual Tracking task 69-81
Juan J. Pantrigo, Ángel Sánchez, José Mira

  • Abstract: This paper describes the knowledge modelling for a complex object tracking system based on a video sequence. By complex object tracking problems, we mean those based on articulated models and also the possibility of tracking multiple targets. The general proposed framework to solve the considered problem, referred as the “Visual Tracking” task, is based on a synergic combination of strategies coming from particle filters and population-based metaheuristics.
    The considered system works with a population of individuals (solutions) that evolve along time. These individuals cooperate among them and also improve their respective fitness values in order to offer an efficient near-optimal solution for each frame in the tracked video sequence. The three main resulting subtasks, namely “Extract”, “Explore” and “Exploit‘”, are described in detail by CommonKADS library schemes. We argue that the knowledge modelling components used in the decomposition of the Visual Tracking task can be reused as generic elements of problem-solving methods in video processing.
  • Keywords: Knowledge modelling; Visual Tracking; Particle filter; Metaheuristic; Video processing
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The effects of information technology on knowledge management systems 150-160
Shu-Mei Tseng

  • Abstract: Due to the rapid development of knowledge and information technology (IT), business environments have become much more complicated. In order to cope with ensuing complications, enterprises ought to incessantly innovate; otherwise, it will be very difficult for them to survive in the marketplace. Hence, many enterprises have applied IT in order to cut production costs, introduce innovations in products and services, promote growth, develop alliances, lock in customers and suppliers, and create switching costs and raise barriers to entry. In other words, IT can help a firm aiming to gain a competitive advantage. In addition, many studies have argued that business value comes mainly from intangible assets, such as knowledge. Thus, knowledge workers will be able to replace clerical workers as the new mainstream of manpower resources, a field in which the development of IT is the major force for change in knowledge management system (KMS). Therefore, based on the definition of the five gaps in KMS, this study explores the role and effect of IT in the implementation of KMS on firms; moreover, relationships between KMS and IT are analyzed and demonstrated by means of the literature reviews, expert interviews and questionnaire analyses. Furthermore, this study discusses how to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of implementing KMS through appropriate IT.
  • Keywords: Knowledge management; Information technology; Case studies
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An empirical study on knowledge integration, technology innovation and experimental practice 177-186
Hsu-Fang Hung, Hsing-Pei Kao, Yee-Yeen Chu

  • Abstract: In the global market, inter-firm collaborative product development has become an increasingly significant business strategy for enhanced product competitiveness. Engineering knowledge is a key asset for technology-based enterprises to successfully develop new products and processes. Experimental practice is a crucial process for knowledge integration and technology innovation. This research explores this in inter-firm collaborative product development through experimental practice. We conducted a series of in-depth case studies to investigate the patterns of knowledge integration in the collaborative development of system-on-a-chip (SoC) by semiconductor firms. Our studies focused on the central interactive process for engineering applications and experimental practice to enhance knowledge integration and technology innovation for rapid development. Furthermore, we identified factors critical for experimental practice in effective engineering knowledge integration and innovation.
  • Keywords: Knowledge integration; Technology innovation; Experimental practice; Inter-firm collaboration; Collaborative product development
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Ontology-based knowledge management for joint venture projects 187-197
Kuo-Cheng Ku, Anthony Wensley, Hsing-Pei Kao

  • Abstract: When enterprises engage in strategic joint venture projects, communication, knowledge sharing and management issues are inevitable and complex problems. Problems relating to communication, knowledge sharing and management issues generally occur in more than one phase of joint venture projects and involve various different domains. This study reviews issues related to knowledge management in the context of joint ventures (JV) from both macro and micro perspectives by using an ontology-based approach to analyze complex knowledge management (KM) issues in the context of the Integrated Circuit (IC) industry. This study presents a framework for an ontology-based model to analyze the knowledge management processing of joint ventures in the IC industry, and uses the IC foundry industry as an example to explore implementation issues. This framework uses a conceptual enterprise ontology (EO) model and domains of EO to analyze the process of EO. Moreover, data from the IC foundry industry is used as a case study. This study aimed to assist managers in increasing the possibility of success in dealing with complicated JV projects.
  • Keywords: Enterprise ontology; Knowledge management; Joint ventures; IC foundry industry
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Cross-organizational knowledge acquisition through flexible hiring and joint R&D: Insights from a survey in China 434-441
Rong Du, Shizhong Ai

  • Abstract: In this paper, we suggest that flexible hiring and joint research and development are two ways to acquire outside knowledge resources, which facilitate inter-organizational knowledge sharing and enable firms to overcome the constraints of internalized knowledge search in their innovation processes. We conducted a survey of 182 firms in Xi’an, China, which indicates that the majority of the surveyed firms have realized the importance of acquiring outside knowledge resources, and they are adopting flexible hiring policy and joint R&D strategy to make good use of outside knowledge resources. We then explore whether the two ways facilitate cross-organizational knowledge acquisition and inter-organization knowledge sharing, and hence contribute to effective innovations. We find that flexible hiring and joint R&D are effective ways to employ outside knowledge resources. Moreover, the effectiveness of innovations increases with both ways. These findings show that organizations can acquire outside knowledge resources to improve their innovations through flexible hiring and joint R&D.
  • Keywords: Knowledge acquisition; Flexible hiring; Joint R&D; Survey
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CAKES-NEGO: Causal knowledge-based expert system for B2B negotiation 459-471
Kun-Chang Lee, Soonjae Kwon

  • Abstract: As the advent of the Internet, B2B negotiation process on the Internet has been given attention from both researchers and practitioners. Therefore, B2B ecommerce decision making will be a challenge for organizations in the foreseeable future. Some literature shows that important issues to reduce uncertainty in the development of long-term relationships among B2B commerce partners. In this sense, this paper proposes a new negotiation support system to incorporate causal relationships of negotiation terms in the process of B2B negotiation, on the basis of a cognitive map. The proposed a CAKES-NEGO (CAusal Knowledge-driven Expert System) suggests that causal relationships of negotiation terms could be explicitly represented by using the cognitive map as knowledge representation vehicle as well as inference engine. Cognitive maps can illustrate causal relationships among the factors describing a given object and/or problem, and it can also describe experts’ tacit knowledge about a certain object. A fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is an extension of a cognitive map with the additional capability of representing feedback through weighted causal links. FCM, a fuzzy signed digraph with causal relationships between concept variables found in a specific application domain, is used for the causal knowledge acquisition. The objectives of this paper are to (1) suggest a fuzzy cognitive mapping based expert system that support decision process of decision makers and (2) apply it to the illustrative examples, which are B2B negotiation problems, to show the validity of our proposed system. In addition, statistical tests proved that the proposed negotiation mechanism could improve decision performance significantly in B2B negotiations.
  • Keywords: B2B negotiation; Tacit knowledge; Cognitive map; Fuzzy cognitive map; Causal knowledge; Inference; Expert system; Negotiation terms
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